Journalistic Narratives about the Day of Fire in the Amazon: The Case of Folha de S. Paulo (Brazil) and Público (Portugal)

Authors

  • Thaís Braga Centro de Estudos Comunicação e Sociedade da Universidade do Minho, Portugal
  • Sandra Marinho Centro de Estudos Comunicação e Sociedade da Universidade do Minho, Portugal

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.36367/ntqr.9.2021.56-65

Keywords:

Amazon, Depth Hermeneutics, Pragmatic Analysis of the Journalistic Narrative, Folha de S. Paulo, Público

Abstract

The day of fire in the Amazon refers to forest fires that spread from Brazil to other countries in South America, in August 2019. The article aims to identify and understand what the journalistic narratives about the day of fire in the Amazon were and how they were produced. The Portuguese-language newspapers Folha de S. Paulo (Brazil) and Público (Portugal) were selected for the observation and analysis of the case. As a theoretical-methodological support, depth hermeneutics (DH) was used, which combines three individual and interdependent analytical stages: socio-historical analysis, formal or discursive analysis and reinterpretation. In the socio-historical analysis, the following were characterized: 1) the Amazon, as a socioeconomic border; 2) journalism, due to the ability to articulate events in the form of a narrative; 3) the newspapers Folha de S. Paulo and Público, due to their importance in each country. In the formal or discursive analysis, the methodological procedures were operationalized: constitution of the corpus by non-probabilistic sampling of typical cases; direct observation (analysis grid) and indirect observation (in-depth semi-structured interview with the main journalists in the case); and pragmatic analysis of the journalistic narrative. From the six movements foreseen by this technique (recomposition of the story; identification of the conflicts and functionality of the episodes; construction of journalistic characters; communicative strategies; communicative relationship and the “cognitive contract”; metanarratives), it was observed that the narratives produced by Folha de S. Paulo and by Público had their own characteristics. While the Brazilian newspaper configured a conflict with beginning, middle and end, in the Portuguese one the narrative ended in an anticlimax. In Folha de S. Paulo, the idea of impunity for environmental crimes in the Amazon prevailed, while, in Público, the sorrow was evident in the face of the loss of biodiversity.

References

Babo-Lança, I. (2006). A configuração dos acontecimentos públicos: o “caso República” e as manifestações nos Açores em 1975. Coimbra: Minerva Coimbra.

Carvalho, A. (2000). Opções metodológicas em análise de discurso: instrumentos, pressupostos e implicações. Cadernos Do Noroeste: Série Comunicação, 14(1–2), 143–156. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/1822/5520

Carvalho, M., & Dávila, S. (2020, July 9). Carta aos leitores do PÚBLICO e da Folha de S. Paulo. Público. Retrieved from https://www.publico.pt/2020/07/09/opiniao/editorial/carta-leitores-publico-folha-spaulo-1923602

Coutinho, C. P. (2014). Metodologia de investigação em ciências sociais e humanas: teoria e prática(2nd ed.). Coimbra: Almedina.

Dutra, M. (1999). O Pará dividido: discurso e construção do Estado do Tapajós. Belém: UFPA/NAEA/PLADES.

França, V. R. V. (1998). Jornalismo e a vida social: a história amena de um jornal mineiro. Belo Horizonte: Editora UFMG.

Fraser, M. T. D., & Gondim, S. M. G. (2004). Da fala do outro ao texto negociado: discussões sobre a entrevista na pesquisa qualitativa. Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto), 14(28), 139–152. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0103-863x2004000200004

Freeman, M. (2015). Narrative as a mode of understanding: method, theory, praxis. In A. De Fina & A. Georgakopoulou (Eds.), The Handbook of Narrative Analysis(pp. 21–37). Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.

Freitas, C., & Benetti, M. (2017). Alteridade, outridade e jornalismo: do fenômeno à narração do modo de existência. Brazilian Journalism Research, 13(2), 10–29. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.25200/BJR.v13n2.2017.989

Guion, L. A., Diehl, D. C., & McDonald, D. (2011). Conducting an In-depth Interview. Retrieved from https://www.betterevaluation.org/en/resources/guide/conducting_an_in-depth_interview

Motta, L. G. (2007). A Análise Pragmática da Narrativa Jornalística. In C. Lago & M. Benetti (Eds.), Metodologias de pesquisa em jornalismo(pp. 143–167). Petrópolis: Vozes.

Noor, K. B. M. (2008). Case study: A strategic research methodology. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(11), 1602–1604. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajassp.2008.1602.1604

Orozco, G., & González, R. (2012). Una coartada metodológica: abordajes cualitativos en la investigación en comunicación, medios y audiencias. México: Tintable.

Paes Loureiro, J. de J. (1995). Cultura Amazônica: uma poética do imaginário. Belém: Cejup.

Quéré, L. (2012). A dupla vida do acontecimento: por um realismo pragmatista. In V. R. V. França & L. de Oliveira (Eds.), Acontecimento: reverberações. Belo Horizonte: Autêntica.

Quivy, R., & Campenhoudt, L. (2005). Manual de investigação em ciências sociais -Trajectos(4th ed.). Lisboa: Gradiva.

Thompson, J. B. (2011). Ideologia e cultura moderna: teoria social crítica na era dos meios de comunicação de massa(9th ed.). Petrópolis: Vozes.

Zainal, Z. (2016). Case Study As a Research Method. Jurnal Kemanusiaan, 5(1), 1–6. Retrieved from: https://jurnalkemanusiaan.utm.my/index.php/kemanusiaan/article/view/165/1

Published

2021-07-08

How to Cite

Thaís Braga, & Sandra Marinho. (2021). Journalistic Narratives about the Day of Fire in the Amazon: The Case of Folha de S. Paulo (Brazil) and Público (Portugal). New Trends in Qualitative Research, 9, 56–65. https://doi.org/10.36367/ntqr.9.2021.56-65

Issue

Section

Chapters