A qualitative approach for Community Development in the Context of Tourism in the Coastal Area in Lautém Municipality, Timor-Leste
Keywords:Qualitative, Community development, Tourism, Nvivo Software, Lautém
The purpose of this study is to present the result of the content analysis it uses to investigate community development in the context of tourism through the role of researchers in Lautém Municipality, Timor-Leste. The information was obtained through semi-structured interviews of government and NGO stakeholders and using interviews of the indigenous community. The face-to-face interviews used two languages, the Fataluku and Tetum languages. The 41 interviews were recorded and transcribed in MS word in these languages, which were then translated into Portuguese. The purpose of using dialectical instruments is to explore more in dept the ideas and opinions of the respondents. After an integral reading to obtain an overview, these 41 documents were imported into the Nvivo QSR 12 Plus Software. Using software tools, we thoroughly read and coded the transcription data, based on theory and through reflection of meaningful data. In order to guarantee of the analysis, it was coordinated by two researchers, who used open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. We found five important themes: 1) community development process, 2) knowledge building, 3) sustainability, 4) tourism market access, and 5) social change. The results illustrate that content analysis supported by software tools facilitated the collaborative work of researchers, allowing them to better understand complex information, enrich ideas, and their connections. As a result, it was possible to build knowledge, based on the participation of local players, to answer the research question: how can the tourism have an impact on the community development in the coastal area in Lautém municipality? Thus, this study concludes that the qualitative approach proved to be essential to obtain significant results from the empirical study and as a tool to improve decision making related to tourism on the coast, especially in Lautém, Timor-Leste.
Agyeman, Y. B., Yeboah, A. O., & Ashie, E. (2019). Protected areas and poverty reduction: The role of ecotourism livelihood in local communities in Ghana. Community Development, 50(1), 73–91. https://doi.org/10.1080/15575330.2019.1572635
Amado, J., Costa, A. P., & Crusoé, N. (2017). A Técnica de Análise de Conteúdo. In J. Amado (Ed.), Manual de Investigação Qualitativa em Educação (3rd ed.). Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra.
Aquino, R. S., Lück, M., & Schänzel, H. A. (2018). A conceptual framework of tourism social entrepreneurship for sustainable community development. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 37, 23–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2018.09.001
Badola, R., Barthwal, S., & Hussain, S. A. (2012). Attitudes of local communities towards conservation of mangrove forests: A case study from the east coast of India. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 96(1), 188–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2011.11.016
Barbieri, C., Sotomayor, S., & Gil Arroyo, C. (2020). Sustainable Tourism Practices in Indigenous Communities: The Case of the Peruvian Andes. Tourism Planning & Development, 17(2), 207–224. https://doi.org/10.1080/21568316.2019.1597760
Bardin, L. (1977). Análise de Conteúdo (4th ed.). Presses Universitaires de Frace.
Brandão, F., Breda, Z., & Costa, C. (2019). Innovation and internationalization as development strategies for coastal tourism destinations: The role of organizational networks. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 41(Nov), 219–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2019.10.004
Butler, G. (2017). Fostering community empowerment and capacity building through tourism: perspectives from Dullstroom, South Africa. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 15(3), 199–212. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766825.2015.1133631
Carneiro, M. J., Breda, Z., & Cordeiro, C. (2016). Sports tourism development and destination sustainability: the case of the coastal area of the Aveiro region, Portugal. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 20(3–4), 305–334. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2016.1220863
Chami, M. F. (2018). Community involvement and sustainable tourism development in heritage management: Amboni Limestone Caves, Tanzania. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 7(2), 1–13.
Chilufya, A., Hughes, E., & Scheyvens, R. (2019). Tourists and community development: corporate social responsibility or tourist social responsibility? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(10), 1513–1529. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2019.1643871
Costa, A. P., & Amado, J. (2018). Análise de Conteúdo Suportada por Software. Ludomedia.
Costa, A. P., Moreira, A., & Sá, P. (2021). Reflexões em torno de Metodologias de Investigação: Análise de Dados (Vol. 3). UA Editora.
Costa, A. P., Soares, C. B., Fornari, L., & Pinho, I. (2019). Revisão da Literatura com Apoio de Software - Contribuição da Pesquisa Qualitativa. Ludomedia.
Costa, C., Breda, Z., Pinho, I., Bakas, F., & Durão, M. (2016). Performing a Thematic Analysis: An Exploratory Study about Managers’ Perceptions on Gender Equality. The Qualitative Report, 21(13), 34–47. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2016.2609
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. SAGE Publications.
Dahles, H., Khieng, S., Verver, M., & Manders, I. (2020). Social entrepreneurship and tourism in Cambodia: advancing community engagement. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 28(6), 816–833. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2019.1706544
Diedrich, A. (2007). The impacts of tourism on coral reef conservation awareness and support in coastal communities in Belize. Coral Reefs, 26(4), 985–996. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-007-0224-z
Duffy, L. N., Kline, C., Swanson, J. R., Best, M., & McKinnon, H. (2017). Community development through agroecotourism in Cuba: an application of the community capitals framework. Journal of Ecotourism, 16(3), 203–221. https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2016.1218498
Fornari, L., & Pinho, I. (2022). Revisão da Literatura com apoio de ferramentas digitais: avanços e desafios. New Trends in Qualitative Research, 10, e512.
Grybovych, O., & Hafermann, D. (2010). Sustainable practices of community tourism planning: lessons from a remote community. Community Development, 41(3), 354–369. https://doi.org/10.1080/15575330903444085
Imbaya, B. O., Nthiga, R. W., Sitati, N. W., & Lenaiyasa, P. (2019). Capacity building for inclusive growth in community-based tourism initiatives in Kenya. Tourism Management Perspectives, 30, 11–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2019.01.003
Jones, J. A., & Donmoyer, R. (2021). Improving the Trustworthiness/Validity of Interview Data in Qualitative Nonprofit Sector Research: The Formative Influences Timeline. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 50(4), 889–904. https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764020977657
Jones, P., Hillier, D., & Comfort, D. (2017). The sustainable development goals and the tourism and hospitality industry. Athens Journal of Tourism, 4(1), 7–18.
Kontogeorgopoulos, N. (2005). Community-Based Ecotourism in Phuket and Ao Phangnga, Thailand: Partial Victories and Bittersweet Remedies. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 13(1), 4–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501220508668470
Krippendorff, K. (1980). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Sage.
Lai, P.-H., & Nepal, S. K. (2006). Local perspectives of ecotourism development in Tawushan Nature Reserve, Taiwan. Tourism Management, 27(6), 1117–1129. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2005.11.010
Lee, T. H., & Jan, F.-H. (2019). Can community-based tourism contribute to sustainable development? Evidence from residents’ perceptions of the sustainability. Tourism Management, 70, 368–380.
Mathew, P. V., & Sreejesh, S. (2017). Impact of responsible tourism on destination sustainability and quality of life of community in tourism destinations. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 31, 83–89.
Minayo, M. C. d. S., & Costa, A. P. (2018). Fundamentos Teóricos das Técnicas de Investigação Qualitativa. 2018, 40(40). Revista Lusófona de Educação, 40(70), 139–153.
Moreira, A., Sá, P., & Costa, A. P. (2021). Reflexões em torno de Metodologias de Investigação: Métodos (Vol. 1). UA Editora.
Moreno, D., Moreira, A., Tymoshchuk, O., & Marques, C. (2020). Análise de conteúdo utilizando o webQDA: Opção metodológica para caracterizar uma criança com paralisia cerebral. New Trends in Qualitative Research, 2, 687–702.
Naderifar, M., Goli, H., & Ghaljaie, F. (2017). Snowball Sampling: A Purposeful Method of Sampling in Qualitative Research. Strides in Development of Medical Education, 14(3). https://doi.org/10.5812/sdme.67670
Ngo, T., Lohmann, G., & Hales, R. (2018). Collaborative marketing for the sustainable development of community-based tourism enterprises: voices from the field. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26(8), 1325–1343. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2018.1443114
Pinho, I., & Leite, D. (2014). Doing a literature review using content analysis - Research Networks Review. Congresso Ibero-Americano Em Investigação Qualitativa, Badajoz, Espanha, 4 - 16 de Julho.
Qu, S. Q., & Dumay, J. (2011). The qualitative research interview. Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, 8(3), 238–264. https://doi.org/10.1108/11766091111162070
Raniga, T. (2018). Poverty alleviation, social protection policy and sustainability of economic development cooperatives: Voices of women residing in Bhambayi, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Social Work (South Africa), 54(4), 395. https://doi.org/10.15270/54-4-668
Sá, P., Costa, A. P., & Moreira, A. (2021). Reflexões em torno de Metodologias de Investigação: Recolha de Dados (Vol. 2). UA Editora.
Sail, R. M., & Abu-Samah, A. (2010). Community Development through Community Capacity Building: A Social Science Perspective. Marsland Press Journal of American ScienceJournal of American Science, 66(22), 68–7662.
Scheffelaar, A., Janssen, M., & Luijkx, K. (2021). The Story as a Quality Instrument: Developing an Instrument for Quality Improvement Based on Narratives of Older Adults Receiving Long-Term Care. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(5), 2773. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052773
Souza, F. N. d., Neri, D., & Costa, A. P. (2016). Asking questions in the qualitative research context. The Qualitative Report, 21(13), 6–18.
Stone, L. S., Stone, M. T., & Stone, T. M. (2011). Community-based tourism enterprises: challenges and prospects for community participation; Khama Rhino Sanctuary Trust, Botswana. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(1), 97–114. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2010.508527
Stone, M. T., & Nyaupane, G. (2014). Rethinking community in community-based natural resource management. Journal of the Community Development Society, 45(1), 17–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/15575330.2013.844192
Stone, M. T., & Nyaupane, G. (2016). Protected areas, tourism and community livelihoods linkages: a comprehensive analysis approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(5), 673–693.
Tolkach, D., & King, B. (2015). Strengthening Community-Based Tourism in a new resource-based island nation: Why and how? Tourism Management, 48, 386–398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.12.013
Towner, N. (2016). Community participation and emerging surfing tourism destinations: a case study of the Mentawai Islands. Journal of Sport and Tourism, 20(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/14775085.2016.1151819
Tran, L., & Walter, P. (2014). Ecotourism, gender and development in northern Vietnam. Annals of Tourism Research, 44(1), 116–130. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2013.09.005
Xue, L., Kerstetter, D., & Hunt, C. (2017). Tourism development and changing rural identity in China. Annals of Tourism Research, 66, 170–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2017.07.016
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 New Trends in Qualitative Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.